External radiation or external beam radiation is the most common type of radiation therapy used for cancer treatment a machine is used to aim high energy rays or beams from outside the body into the tumor the machine most commonly used is called a linear accelerator or linac radiation . Experts agree that carbon ion therapy holds great promise for cancer treatment because of the fundamental biology and physics at play a carbon ion can deliver higher amounts of energy to a tumor than an x ray or proton beam. Unfortunately radiation affects both healthy and cancerous cells so the doctor using conventional radiation therapy x rays has to balance killing cancer cells with preserving healthy ones as a result doctors often reduce the optimal x ray radiation dose required to kill cancer cells proton beam therapy offers an alternative. Carbon ion radiotherapy offers superior dose conformity in the treatment of deep seated malignant tumours compared with conventional x ray therapy in addition carbon ion beams have a higher relative biological effectiveness compared with protons or x ray beams the algorithm of treatment planning
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